10 Montessori Principles

The Montessori education method, created by Dr. Maria Montessori in the early 20th century, has been transforming the world of early childhood education for over a century.

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Challenging conventional teaching models, Dr. Montessori developed her principles through years of observation. Her goal? Make a school that fits the natural way children learn instead of forcing them into a strict mold.

She designed the classroom and materials to match children in their natural state. This child-centered approach encourages curiosity, independence, and a lifelong love for learning. For example, if kids like to move, schools should support this need instead of using fixed seating.

Montessori principles define:

  • How Montessori differs from traditional education
  • Deep understanding of how children learn



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10 Principles of Montessori Education

Here are the 10 principles of Montessori education to help you understand why this approach thrives in today's fast-paced world and whether it may suit your family.

1) Respect for the Child

Respecting the child as an individual is at the core of Montessori. It acknowledges each child's uniqueness allowing them to lead their learning process.

Respect encourages children's freedom to:

  • Choose their activities
  • Work at their own pace
  • Fix their own mistakes
  • Do things for themselves

Montessori educators observe and listen, empowering children to lead their learning. By not interrupting kids when they're focused and giving them a chance to make choices, Montessori schools create a friendly and respectful learning environment.


2) Sensitive Periods

Dr. Maria Montessori noticed that children have specific phases in their growth when they're best at learning certain subjects and skills. She called these stages "sensitive periods" - unique windows of opportunity for learning. During these times, children often show intense focus, repeat tasks, commit to their work, and concentrate for extended periods.

Montessori education recognizes that children go through stages when they're incredibly open to learning certain things. These sensitive periods only last as long as it takes for the child to gain the skills. The order and timing of these periods can vary for each child.

By knowing this, Montessori teachers create environments that support and encourage kids during these critical times.

3) Absorbent Mind

Dr. Maria Montessori discovered that your child's first six years are crucial for development. She called this stage the "absorbent mind" because kids can quickly soak up information during this time.

In these years, children quickly learn about their culture and world. They build their intelligence and personality foundations.

The Montessori method believes that children always learn from the world around them by living in it. Kids constantly take in information through their senses and make sense of it because they are naturally thoughtful.

4) The Prepared Environment

A carefully crafted environment is essential for children to learn independently and effectively. The Montessori classroom, or the "prepared environment," is a thoughtful learning space where everything has a purpose and a place.

The guiding principle is "order in environment and mind," fostering logical thinking in young minds. Teachers create this child-centered learning space by organizing materials and experiences to promote independence and exploration. The classroom is painted in muted colors and has plenty of natural light that helps foster concentration.

Every item in the Montessori classroom is accessible and engaging. Children can choose activities that interest them freely. In this beautiful space, they pursue their interests, engage in their selected work, and advance at their own rhythm.

5) Educating the Whole Child

Montessori education is all about cultivating well-rounded individuals. Montessori nurtures each child's potential by offering learning experiences that grow in:

  • Intellectual
  • Physical
  • Emotional
  • Social

Montessori embraces a holistic approach. Every aspect of a child's development is considered vital and interconnected. The curriculum goes well beyond language and math by including practical life, sensory, and cultural lessons.

6) Auto-Education

At the heart of Montessori is auto-education, the belief that your child can teach themselves. Montessori educators set the prepared environment, offer encouragement, and guide children to educate themselves.

Montessori materials empower your child to pursue their interests and learning path. This self-directed learning kindles a love for discovery and fosters lifelong learning.

7) Individualized Learning

Montessori learning programs embrace the uniqueness of each child by personalizing lessons based on their stage of development, interests, and needs. With one-on-one lessons tailored to each child's academic progress, Montessori educators track and support their students as they advance through the curriculum.

In a Montessori classroom, 20 students might be at 20 different academic levels, all carefully observed and monitored by the teacher. Instead of group lessons, Montessori teachers provide individualized lessons to meet each student's specific needs.

This approach is possible because children work independently for much of the day, practicing and refining skills they've already learned. This empowers students to learn independently, ensuring their educational journey is truly personalized.

8) Mixed-Age Classrooms

Montessori classrooms divide into mixed-age groups (e.g., 3 - 6-year-olds) based on each child's development stage. Students stay in one class for the complete three-year cycle.

Montessori classrooms bring together children of different ages that promote:

  • Cooperation
  • Peer mentorship
  • Social growth

Younger children achieve authentic peer learning by observing and learning from older peers. Older ones gain leadership skills and solidify their knowledge by guiding younger ones.

9) Freedom of Choice

Children learn best when they can choose where to sit and what to work on with guidance from their teacher. Montessori emphasizes freedom and independence within limits, allowing children to make choices while maintaining respect and order in the classroom. 

Montessori classrooms provide a prepared environment where children can move around, work where they feel most comfortable, and engage in hands-on learning experiences. This active, individually paced learning is often self-correcting and tailored to your child's needs and interests. Your child can decide whether to focus on math or language or sit at a table or on the floor.

10) Intrinsic Motivation

The Montessori approach takes the view that learning is its own reward. There are no gold stars in the Montessori classroom to reward learning. Your child finds satisfaction in completing activities and mastering skills independently.

Fostering independence is crucial in Montessori education. Your child takes charge of learning by choosing activities, solving problems, and caring for their environment.

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